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Haloperoxidase Literature

An extensive literature on haloperoxidases supports the broad microbicidal activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO). A list of selected articles, arranged by topic, follows.


  • Klebanoff SJ. Phagocyte antimicrobial systems: Myeloperoxidase. Proceedings of the Association of American Physicians 1999, 111, 5, 383-389.
  • Winterbourn CC, Vissers MCM, Kettle AJ. Myeloperoxidase Current Opinion in Hematology 2000, 7, 53–58.


  • Lefkowitz DL, Lincoln JA, Howard KR, Stuart R, Lefkowitz SS, Allen RC. Macrophage-Mediated Candidacidal Activity is Augmented by Exposure to Eosinophil Peroxidase: A Paradigm for Eosinophil-Macrophage Interaction.Inflammation. 1997, 21, 2, 159-172.Download
  • Lincoln JA, Lefkowitz, DL, Grattendick KJ, Lefkowitz SS, Allen RC. Enzymatically Inactive Eosinophil Peroxidase Inhibits Proinflammatory Cytokine Transcription and Secretion of Macrophages.Cellular Immunology. 1999, 196, 23-33 Download
  • Bolscher BG, Plat H, Wever R. Some properties of human eosinophil peroxidase, a comparison with other peroxidases. Biochim Biophys Acta 1984, 784, 177-186.
  • Jong EC, Henderson WR, Klebanoff SJ. Bactericidal activity of eosinophil peroxidase. J Immunol 1980, 124, 1378-1382.
  • Van Dalen CJ, Kettle AJ. Substrates and products of eosinophil peroxidase. Biochem. J. 2001, 358, 233-239.

Mechanism of Action

  • Lefkowitz L, Roberts E, Grattendick K, Schwab C, Stuart R, Lincoln J,Allen RC, Moguilevsky N, Bollen A, Lefkowitz S. The Endothelium and Cytokine Secretion: The Role of Peroxidases as Immunoregulators.Cellular Immun. 2000, 202, 23-30.Download
  • Allen Robert C., Stephens Jackson T. Jr. Myeloperoxidase Selectively Binds and Selectively Kills Microbes. Infection and Immunity, 2011, 79, 474-485 Download
  • Allen, Robert C. Evaluation of Serum Opsonic Capacity by Quantitating the Initial Chemiluminescent Response from Phagocytizing Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes. Infection and Immunity, 1977, 15, 828-833.Download
  • Witko-Sarsat V, Allen RC, Paulais M, Nguyen AT, Bessou G, Lenoir G, Descamps-Latscha B. Disturbed Myeloperoxidase-Dependent Activity of Neutrophils in Cystic Fibrosis Homozygotes and Heterozygotes, and Its Correction by Amiloride. Journal of Immunology, 1996, 157, 2728-2735.Download
  • Taylor FBJr, Haddad P, Hack E, Chang AC, Peer GT, Morrissey JH, Li A,Allen RC, Wada H, Kinasewitz G. Two-stage response to endotoxin infusion into normal human subjects: Correlation of blood phagocyte luminescence with clinical and laboratory markers of the inflammatory, hemostatic response. Crit Care Med. 2001, 29, 326-334 Download
  • Furtmuller PG, Obinger C, Hsuanyu Y, Dunford HB. Mechanism of reaction of myeloperoxidase with hydrogen peroxide and chloride ion. Eur. J.Biochem. 2000, 267, 5858-5864.
  • Chika, K., Makiuchi, M., Miyazaki, J., Fujinaga, T., and Kakinuma,K. Physiological production of singlet molecular oxygen in the myeloperoxidase-H202-chloride system. FEBS Letters 1999, 443, 154-158.
  • Allen RC. The role of pH in the chemiluminescent response of the MPO halide HOOH antimicrobial system. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 1975,
    63, 684-691.
  • Kanofsky JR, Wright J, Miles-Richardson GE, Tauber AI. Biochemical requirements for singlet oxygen production by purified human myeloperoxidase. J Clin Invest 1984, 74, 1489-1495.
  • Kanofsky JR, Hoogland H, Wever R, Weiss SJ. Singlet oxygen production by human eosinophils. J Biol Chem 1988, 263, 9692-9696.
  • Tatsuzawa, H., Maruyama,T., Hori, K., Sano, Y., and Nakano, M. Singlet oxygen as the principal oxidant in myeloperoxidase-mediated bacterial killing in neutrophil phagosome. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1999, 262, 647-650.

Antimicrobial Activity

  • Vigerust DJ, Lincoln JA, Stuart RW, Gnade B, Lefkowitz DL, Lefkowitz SS, Allen RC. Peroxidase-Mediated Oxygenation and Microbicidal Activity. Inflammation. 2000, 24 251-263.Download
  • Denys GA, Davis JC, O’Hanley PD, Stephens, JT Jr. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of E-101 Solution against Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates from U.S. Military Personnel. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2011, 55, 3603-3608.Download
  • Allen RC. Role of oxygen in phagocyte microbicidal action. Environ Health Perspect 1994, 102, Suppl 10, 201-208.Download
  • Borelli V, Banfi E, Perrotta M G, Zabucchi G. Myeloperoxidase Exerts Microbicidal Activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.Infection and Immunity 1999, 67, 4149–4152.
  • Chochola J, Yamaguchi Y, Moguilevsky N, Bollen A, Strosberg AD, Stanislawski M. Virucidal effect of myeloperoxidase on human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected T cells. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1994, 38, 5, 969-972.
  • Marodi L, Tournay C, Kapostzta R, Johnston RB, Moguilevsky N. Augmentation of human macrophage candidacidal capacity by recombinant human myeloperoxidase and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Infect Immun. 1998, 66, 6, 2750-2754.
  • Washburn RG, Gallin JL, Bennett JE. Oxidative killing of Aspergillus fumigatus proceeds by parallel myeloperoxidase-dependent and -independent pathways. Infect Immun 1987, 55, 2088-2092.
  • Wright CD, Nelson RD. Candidacidal activity of myeloperoxidase: characterization of myeloperoxidase-yeast complex formation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1988, 47, 522-525.
  • Yang Y, Anderson E.J. Antimicrobial activity of a porcine myeloperoxidase against plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi Journal of Applied Microbiology 1999, 86, 211–220.
  • Messaoudi K. El, Verheyden A-M, Thiry L, Fourez S, Tasiaux N, Bollen A, Moguilevsky N. Human Recombinant Myeloperoxidase Antiviral Activity on Cytomegalovirus. Journal of Medical Virology 2002, 66, 218-223.