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Haloperoxidase enzymes, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), work to kill a broad range of pathogenic microorganisms through a unique mechanism of action unlikely to induce resistance.

Exoxemis™ products are built on the fundamental discovery that MPO and EPO bind preferentially and kill pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and fungi with minimal damage to host tissue. Induction studies in clinically important bacterial isolates found that resistance to MPO did not develop.

Fast-working formulations, broad-spectrum effectiveness

Exoxemis has created a broad proprietary base of predictive models, know-how, and intellectual property that form the foundation for commercialization efforts.

Extensive in vitro and in vivo testing demonstrates that our formulations are safe and rapidly cidal against a broad range of microbiological targets, including gram-negative and gram-postive bacteria, spores, fungi, viruses, and prions. The unique characteristics of the MPO system are:

  • Exhibits true broad-spectrum activity
  • Active at very low concentrations
  • Effective against drug-resistant organisms
  • Unique mechanism of action unlikely to induce antimicrobial resistance
  • Demonstrated in vivo efficacy
  • Safe in multiple animal species

Zempia®: Potent and Versatile Antimicrobial Activity

During the past 20 years, Exoxemis has developed Zempia® (E-101), a broad-spectrum antimicrobial solution, for topical and local use in preventing microbial infections. Zempia® is a porcine MPO (pMPO)-based system that selectively binds to target bacteria. It then generates highly reactive singlet oxygen that achieves microbicidal efficacy without substantial toxicity to the host tissue.

Zempia® has been tested against many microbial pathogens of concern today, including organisms that are becoming resistant to standard antimicrobial treatments.

Haloperoxidase Enzymes

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) provide the basis for safe, broad-spectrum microbicidal agents against serious and resistant infections.

MPO and EPO are enzymes that play a central role in the immune system’s defense against infection. More specifically, these enzymes catalyze the oxidation of halide by hydrogen peroxide to form reactive oxygen species that kill pathogens. Studies have shown that the unique mechanism of action of MPO does not induce resistance. The enzymes work by binding preferentially to pathogens, affecting multiple targets in the microbial cells of bacteria, fungi, and viruses while minimizing collateral damage to normal flora and host cells.

Antimicrobial activity

MPO and EPO have been shown in in vitro studies to have rapid cidal activity effective against a wide variety of antimicrobial-susceptible and antimicrobial-resistant pathogens, including:


(Aerobic and anaerobic gram-negative and gram-positive) Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, viridans streptococci, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Propionibacterium acnes, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium sporogenes, Gardnerella vaginalis, Salmonella choleraesuis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium terrae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia psittaci.

Molds and Yeasts

Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Trichophyton rubrum, Fusarium moniliforme, Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans.


Rhinovirus, HIV, bovine papillomavirus, herpes simplex virus.

A review of the scientific literature on haloperoxidase supports the broad microbicidal activity of MPO and EPO.


Exoxemis has completed a placebo controlled, randomized, international, Pivotal, Phase III, human clinical trial with 250 human subjects in each arm, at 25 U.S. and 5 Israeli sites. This study provides direct evidence that Zempia® is safe for use in open wounds—it does not interfere with normal wound healing.

Results of in vitro and in vivo studies

In vitro studies by Exoxemis show rapid microbicidal activity of MPO against clinically significant antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-susceptible strains of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, spores, fungi, and viruses: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), extended spectrum beta-lactamase producers (ESBL), mucoid strains, and multidrug-resistant organisms.

In vivo studies by Exoxemis have demonstrated microbicidal activity in support of preventing and treating infectious diseases. In addition to broad spectrum and rapid cidal activity, MPO and its formulations have been shown, in early studies, to be both safe and effective.

A comparison of MPO system to antibiotics for irrigation of implant material

Residual bacteria at the site of implant surgery can lead to acute and delayed infection. Recent studies conducted by Exoxemis clearly demonstrated that the MPO enzyme system rapidly and completely kills residual S. aureus, even in the presence of implant material. Antibiotic solutions traditionally used in the clinic failed to do so, and in fact, showed re-growth of the initial inoculum. Future studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of the MPO enzyme system against other pathogens and implant materials, and in preventing contamination, biofilm formation, and subsequent infection. Learn More